Influences on Cardboard Packaging

While assessing the parameters of corrugated fibreboard, it is important to note that the conditions, therefore the influence on the parameters, may in practice differ greatly from the values measured by the packaging manufacturer in the laboratory.

Standard measurements in the laboratory are taken at 23°C and 51% of relative humidity; the measured samples are preconditioned to these conditions.

In real-life conditions, packaging materials are exposed to weathering and mechanical effects which are often very different from the conditions in the laboratory. Furthermore, those conditions act in varying intervals and with varying frequency. Packaging materials are quite often subject to loads that cannot be simulated in the laboratory at all, and their effects may only be estimated.


Influence of relative humidity on cardboard humidity

Paper is a hygroscopic material, i.e. it absorbs (receives) and desorbs (releases) water. Any change in the relative humidity leads to a corresponding change in cardboard humidity. This means that nearly all of the physical properties are changed.

At 50% relative humidity, cardboard shows an absolute humidity of 7–8%. When the relative humidity increases by 8%, the absolute humidity increases by 1%.

Influence of cardboard humidity on strength parameters

The charts below illustrate the influence of absolute humidity on the individual parameters. The charts show a substantial influence on fibreboard ECT which projects onto the BCT, the package load capacity value.


Influence of stacking packages on the pallet

The manner of positioning boxes on the pallet is highly underestimated. The lowest loss is seen when the boxes are stacked precisely on top of one another – edge by edge. This manner puts the load as much as possible on the edges, the most durable sections of the packaging.

Loss by stacking ranges from 10% in boxes precisely stacked in columns to 50% in boxes stacked loosely in an interlocking pattern.

Influence of storage time

The influence of storage time, i.e. load impact over time, has been assessed by mathematical models and trials as below.

As early as after 100 days, box BCT reduces by approximately 40%.

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